Friday, November 18, 2011

country-of-origin labeling law (COOL) violates U.S. obligations under WTO rules WT/DS384/R WT/DS386/R

country-of-origin labeling law (COOL) violates U.S. obligations under WTO rules WT/DS384/R WT/DS386/R



WT/DS384/R

WT/DS386/R

Page 213

VIII. FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

8.1 We recall the United States' request that we issue our findings in the form of a single document containing two separate reports with separate findings and recommendations for each complainant. We also recall that Canada agreed, and Mexico did not object, to the United States' request.1134 Accordingly, we provide two separate sets of findings and recommendations, with separate numbers/symbols for each complainant (WT/DS384 for Canada and WT/DS386 for Mexico).

1134 See para. 2.11 above.

WT/DS384/R

Page 214A

A. COMPLAINT BY CANADA (DS384): FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATION

8.2 Canada has made claims with regard to the COOL measure and the Vilsack letter under Articles 2.1 and 2.2 of the TBT Agreement and Articles III:4, X:3(a) and XXIII:1(b) of the GATT 1994.

8.3 With respect to Canada's claims under the TBT Agreement, we conclude that:

(a) the COOL measure is a "technical regulation" within the meaning of Annex 1.1 to the TBT Agreement, whereas the Vilsack letter is not;

(b) the COOL measure, particularly in regard to the muscle cut meat labels, violates Article 2.1 because it affords imported livestock treatment less favourable than that accorded to like domestic livestock; and

(c) the COOL measure violates Article 2.2 because it does not fulfil the objective of providing consumer information on origin with respect to meat products.

8.4 With respect to Canada's claims under the GATT 1994, we conclude that:

(a) we need not make a finding on the COOL measure under Article III:4 in light of our finding that the same measure violated the national treatment obligation under Article 2.1 of the TBT Agreement;

(b) the Vilsack letter violates Article X:3(a) because it does not constitute a reasonable administration of the COOL measure; and

(c) having found that the Vilsack letter falls within the scope of Article X:3(a), we refrain from examining whether it is inconsistent with Article III:4.

8.5 Finally, in light of the above findings of violation, we have refrained from examining Canada's non-violation claim under Article XXIII:1(b) of the GATT 1994.

8.6 Under Article 3.8 of the DSU, in cases where there is an infringement of the obligations assumed under a covered agreement, the action is considered prima facie to constitute a case of nullification or impairment of benefits under that agreement. Accordingly, we conclude that to the extent that the United States has acted inconsistently with Articles 2.1 and 2.2 of the TBT Agreement and Article X:3(a) of the GATT 1994, it has nullified or impaired benefits accruing to Canada under these agreements.

8.7 Pursuant to Article 19.1 of the DSU, having found that the United States has acted inconsistently with Articles 2.1 and 2.2 of the TBT Agreement and Article X:3(a) of the GATT 1994, we recommend that the Dispute Settlement Body request the United States to bring the inconsistent measures into conformity with its obligations under the TBT Agreement and the GATT 1994.

_______________

WT/DS386/R

Page 214B

A. COMPLAINT BY MEXICO (DS386): FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATION

8.2 Mexico has made claims with regard to the COOL measure and the Vilsack letter under Articles 2.1, 2.2, 2.4, 12.1 and 12.3 of the TBT Agreement and Articles III:4, X:3(a) and XXIII:1(b) of the GATT 1994.

8.3 With respect to Mexico's claims under the TBT Agreement, we conclude that:

(a) the COOL measure is a "technical regulation" within the meaning of Annex 1.1 to the TBT Agreement, whereas the Vilsack letter is not;

(b) the COOL measure, in particular in regard to the muscle cut meat labels, violates Article 2.1 because it affords imported livestock treatment less favourable than that accorded to like domestic livestock;

(c) the COOL measure violates Article 2.2 because it does not fulfil the objective of providing consumer information on origin with respect to meat products;

(d) Mexico has not established that the COOL measure violates Article 2.4;

(e) Mexico has not established that the United States acted inconsistently with Article 12.3; and

(f) in light of our finding on Mexico's claim under Article 12.3, Mexico has not established its claim under Article 12.1.

8.4 With respect to Mexico's claims under the GATT 1994, we conclude that:

(a) we need not make a finding on the COOL measure under Article III:4 in light of our finding of violation by the same measure of the more specific national treatment obligation under Article 2.1 of the TBT Agreement;

(b) the Vilsack letter violates Article X:3(a) because it does not constitute a reasonable administration of the COOL measure;

(c) Mexico has not established that the United States administered the COOL measure in a non-uniform and partial manner inconsistently with Article X:3(a) through the shifts in the guidance by USDA on the COOL measure; and

(d) having found that the Vilsack letter falls within the scope of Article X:3(a), we refrain from examining whether it is inconsistent with Article III:4.

8.5 Finally, in light of the above findings of violation, we have refrained from examining Mexico's non-violation claim under Article XXIII:1(b) of the GATT 1994.

8.6 Under Article 3.8 of the DSU, in cases where there is infringement of the obligations assumed under a covered agreement, the action is considered prima facie to constitute a case of nullification or impairment of benefits under that agreement. Accordingly, we conclude that to the extent that the United States has acted inconsistently with Articles 2.1 and 2.2 of the TBT Agreement and Article X:3(a) of the GATT 1994, it has nullified or impaired benefits accruing to Mexico under these agreements.

WT/DS386/R

Page 215B

8.7 Pursuant to Article 19.1 of the DSU, having found that the United States has acted inconsistently with Articles 2.1 and 2.2 of the TBT Agreement and Article X:3(a) of the GATT 1994, we recommend that the Dispute Settlement Body request the United States to bring the inconsistent measures into conformity with its obligations under the TBT Agreement and the GATT 1994.

_______________

http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/384_386r_conc_e.pdf



Thursday, November 17, 2011

International cattle ID and traceability: Competitive implications for the US

Food Policy Volume 37, Issue 1, February 2012, Pages 31-40

http://naiscoolyes.blogspot.com/2011/11/international-cattle-id-and.html



Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Alternative BSE Risk Assessment Methodology of Imported Beef and Beef Offal to Japan Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

Advance Publication

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/11/alternative-bse-risk-assessment.html



Sunday, November 13, 2011

California BSE mad cow beef recall, QFC, CJD, and dead stock downer livestock

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/11/california-bse-mad-cow-beef-recall-qfc.html



Wednesday, June 15, 2011

Galveston, Texas - Isle port moves through thousands of heifers headed to Russia, none from Texas, Alabama, or Washington, due to BSE risk factor

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/06/galveston-texas-isle-port-moves-through.html



MAD COW DISEASE, TEXAS STYLE

http://www.organicconsumers.org/articles/article_23850.cfm



Saturday, June 25, 2011

Transmissibility of BSE-L and Cattle-Adapted TME Prion Strain to Cynomolgus Macaque



"BSE-L in North America may have existed for decades"


http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/06/transmissibility-of-bse-l-and-cattle.html




EFSA Journal 2011 The European Response to BSE: A Success Story

This is an interesting editorial about the Mad Cow Disease debacle, and it's ramifications that will continue to play out for decades to come ;

Monday, October 10, 2011

EFSA Journal 2011 The European Response to BSE: A Success Story

snip...

EFSA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) recently delivered a scientific opinion on any possible epidemiological or molecular association between TSEs in animals and humans (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) and ECDC, 2011). This opinion confirmed Classical BSE prions as the only TSE agents demonstrated to be zoonotic so far but the possibility that a small proportion of human cases so far classified as "sporadic" CJD are of zoonotic origin could not be excluded. Moreover, transmission experiments to non-human primates suggest that some TSE agents in addition to Classical BSE prions in cattle (namely L-type Atypical BSE, Classical BSE in sheep, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) agents) might have zoonotic potential.

snip...


http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/e991.htm?emt=1


http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/e991.pdf




see follow-up here about North America BSE Mad Cow TSE prion risk factors, and the ever emerging strains of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in many species here in the USA, including humans ;

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/10/efsa-journal-2011-european-response-to.html




Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Atypical BSE in Cattle

To date the OIE/WAHO assumes that the human and animal health standards set out in the BSE chapter for classical BSE (C-Type) applies to all forms of BSE which include the H-type and L-type atypical forms. This assumption is scientifically not completely justified and accumulating evidence suggests that this may in fact not be the case. Molecular characterization and the spatial distribution pattern of histopathologic lesions and immunohistochemistry (IHC) signals are used to identify and characterize atypical BSE. Both the L-type and H-type atypical cases display significant differences in the conformation and spatial accumulation of the disease associated prion protein (PrPSc) in brains of afflicted cattle. Transmission studies in bovine transgenic and wild type mouse models support that the atypical BSE types might be unique strains because they have different incubation times and lesion profiles when compared to C-type BSE. When L-type BSE was inoculated into ovine transgenic mice and Syrian hamster the resulting molecular fingerprint had changed, either in the first or a subsequent passage, from L-type into C-type BSE.

In addition, non-human primates are specifically susceptible for atypical BSE as demonstrated by an approximately 50% shortened incubation time for L-type BSE as compared to C-type. Considering the current scientific information available, it cannot be assumed that these different BSE types pose the same human health risks as C-type BSE or that these risks are mitigated by the same protective measures.

This study will contribute to a correct definition of specified risk material (SRM) in atypical BSE. The incumbent of this position will develop new and transfer existing, ultra-sensitive methods for the detection of atypical BSE in tissue of experimentally infected cattle.

http://www.prionetcanada.ca/detail.aspx?menu=5&dt=293380&app=93&cat1=387&tp=20&lk=no&cat2




Thursday, August 12, 2010

Seven main threats for the future linked to prions

First threat

The TSE road map defining the evolution of European policy for protection against prion diseases is based on a certain numbers of hypotheses some of which may turn out to be erroneous. In particular, a form of BSE (called atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy), recently identified by systematic testing in aged cattle without clinical signs, may be the origin of classical BSE and thus potentially constitute a reservoir, which may be impossible to eradicate if a sporadic origin is confirmed.

***Also, a link is suspected between atypical BSE and some apparently sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. These atypical BSE cases constitute an unforeseen first threat that could sharply modify the European approach to prion diseases.

Second threat

snip...

http://www.neuroprion.org/en/np-neuroprion.html




Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport References Committee

The possible impacts and consequences for public health, trade and agriculture of the Government's decision to relax import restrictions on beef Final report June 2010

2.66 Dr Fahey also told the committee that in the last two years a link has been established between forms of atypical CJD and atypical BSE. Dr Fahey said that: They now believe that those atypical BSEs overseas are in fact causing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. They were not sure if it was due to mad sheep disease or a different form. If you look in the textbooks it looks like this is just arising by itself. But in my research I have a summary of a document which states that there has never been any proof that sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has arisen de novo-has arisen of itself. There is no proof of that. The recent research is that in fact it is due to atypical forms of mad cow disease which have been found across Europe, have been found in America and have been found in Asia. These atypical forms of mad cow disease typically have even longer incubation periods than the classical mad cow disease.50

http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/committee/rrat_ctte/mad_cows/report/report.pdf



And last but not least, similarities of PrPres between Htype BSE and human prion diseases like CJD or GSS have been put forward [10], as well as between L-type BSE and CJD [17]. These findings raise questions about the origin and inter species transmission of these prion diseases that were discovered through the BSE active surveillance.

full text 18 pages ;

http://www.vetres.org/index.php?option=article&access=standard&Itemid=129&url=/articles/vetres/pdf/2008/04/v07232.pdf




please see full text ;

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2008/06/review-on-epidemiology-and-dynamics-of.html



[Terry S. Singeltary Sr. has added the following comment:

"According to the World Health Organisation, the future public health threat of vCJD in the UK and Europe and potentially the rest of the world is of concern and currently unquantifiable. However, the possibility of a significant and geographically diverse vCJD epidemic occurring over the next few decades cannot be dismissed.

http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2003/9241545887.pdf



Terry S. Singeltary Sr. has added the following comment:

"According to the World Health Organisation, the future public health threat of vCJD in the UK and Europe and potentially the rest of the world is of concern and currently unquantifiable. However, the possibility of a significant and geographically diverse vCJD epidemic occurring over the next few decades cannot be dismissed.

The key word here is diverse. What does diverse mean? If USA scrapie transmitted to USA bovine does not produce pathology as the UK c-BSE, then why would CJD from there look like UK vCJD?"

http://www.promedmail.org/direct.php?id=20100405.1091



When L-type BSE was inoculated into ovine transgenic mice and Syrian hamster the resulting molecular fingerprint had changed, either in the first or a subsequent passage, from L-type into C-type BSE. In addition, non-human primates are specifically susceptible for atypical BSE as demonstrated by an approximately 50% shortened incubation time for L-type BSE as compared to C-type. Considering the current scientific information available, it cannot be assumed that these different BSE types pose the same human health risks as C-type BSE or that these risks are mitigated by the same protective measures.

This study will contribute to a correct definition of specified risk material (SRM) in atypical BSE. The incumbent of this position will develop new and transfer existing, ultra-sensitive methods for the detection of atypical BSE in tissue of experimentally infected cattle.

http://www.prionetcanada.ca/detail.aspx?menu=5&dt=293380&app=93&cat1=387&tp=20&lk=no&cat2



Saturday, March 05, 2011

MAD COW DISEASE BSE PRION MEXICO ???

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2011/03/mad-cow-disease-bse-prion-mexico.html



Alberta dairy cow found with mad cow disease

Fri Mar 4, 2011 10:05am EST

WINNIPEG, Manitoba (Reuters) - Canadian government officials have found a dairy cow in Alberta with mad cow disease, but the finding is not surprising and shouldn't affect beef exports, a spokesman for the Canadian Food Inspection Agency said on Friday. The agency confirmed the case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or BSE as the disease is also known, on February 18 in a 77-month-old dairy cow, spokesman Guy Gravelle said.

In 2003, the first discovery of a cow in Canada with the disease led to closures of numerous export markets to Canadian beef. Most have reopened, other than South Korea and China, and importers are no longer as sensitive to new cases as countries such as Canada now have monitoring systems in place.

Canada continues to be rated a "controlled risk" for the disease by the World Organization for Animal Health, Gravelle said. The newest case may delay any upgrade to Canada's international risk status as a country cannot apply for negligible status sooner than 11 years after the latest-born case.

The cow has been destroyed and no part of its carcass entered the human food or animal feed systems, Gravelle said.

The case, which is believed to be Canada's 18th, should not affect exports of Canadian cattle or beef, he said, as a small number of BSE cases are expected as Canada monitors for the disease.

(Reporting by Rod Nickel; Editing by Walter Bagley)

http://ca.reuters.com/article/domesticNews/idCATRE7233JT20110304


http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/anima/disemala/bseesb/comenqe.shtml


http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/anima/disemala/bseesb/bseesbe.shtml




Wednesday, August 11, 2010

REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE SIXTEENTH CASE OF BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) IN CANADA

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2010/08/report-on-investigation-of-sixteenth.html



Thursday, August 19, 2010

REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE SEVENTEENTH CASE OF BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) IN CANADA

http://bseusa.blogspot.com/2010/08/report-on-investigation-of-seventeenth.html



Thursday, February 10, 2011

TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY REPORT UPDATE CANADA FEBRUARY 2011 and how to hide mad cow disease in Canada Current as of: 2011-01-31

http://madcowtesting.blogspot.com/2011/02/transmissible-spongiform-encephalopathy.html



Tuesday, November 08, 2011

Can Mortality Data Provide Reliable Indicators for Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance? A Study in France from 2000 to 2008 Vol. 37, No. 3-4, 2011

Original Paper

Conclusions:These findings raise doubt about the possibility of a reliable CJD surveillance only based on mortality data.


http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2011/11/can-mortality-data-provide-reliable.html



U.S.A. HIDING MAD COW DISEASE VICTIMS AS SPORADIC CJD ? (see video at bottom)

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2009/07/usa-hiding-mad-cow-disease-victims-as.html



2006

USA sporadic CJD cases rising ;

There is a growing number of human CJD cases, and they were presented last week in San Francisco by Luigi Gambatti(?) from his CJD surveillance collection.

He estimates that it may be up to 14 or 15 persons which display selectively SPRPSC and practically no detected RPRPSC proteins.



http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/transcripts/1006-4240t1.htm


http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/transcripts/2006-4240t1.pdf




2008

The statistical incidence of CJD cases in the United States has been revised to reflect that there is one case per 9000 in adults age 55 and older. Eighty-five percent of the cases are sporadic, meaning there is no known cause at present.

http://www.cjdfoundation.org/fact.html



CJD USA RISING, with UNKNOWN PHENOTYPE ;

5 Includes 41 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 17 inconclusive cases;

*** 6 Includes 46 cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.

http://www.cjdsurveillance.com/pdf/case-table.pdf



Thursday, August 4, 2011

Terry Singeltary Sr. on the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Public Health Crisis, Date aired: 27 Jun 2011 (SEE VIDEO)

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/08/terry-singeltary-sr-on-creutzfeldt.html




Sunday, August 21, 2011

The British disease, or a disease gone global, The TSE Prion Disease (SEE VIDEO)

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/08/british-disease-or-disease-gone-global.html



Saturday, March 5, 2011

MAD COW ATYPICAL CJD PRION TSE CASES WITH CLASSIFICATIONS PENDING ON THE RISE IN NORTH AMERICA

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/03/mad-cow-atypical-cjd-prion-tse-cases.html



Friday, November 04, 2011

Diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid protein markers for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Canada: a 6-year prospective study Research article

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2011/11/diagnostic-accuracy-of-cerebrospinal.html




WHO WILL FOLLOW THE CHILDREN FOR CJD SYMPTOMS ???



Saturday, May 2, 2009

U.S. GOVERNMENT SUES WESTLAND/HALLMARK MEAT OVER USDA CERTIFIED DEADSTOCK DOWNER COW SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM

http://downercattle.blogspot.com/2009/05/us-government-sues-westlandhallmark.html


http://downercattle.blogspot.com/



Sunday, September 6, 2009

MAD COW USA 1997 (see SECRET VIDEO)

http://madcowusda.blogspot.com/2009/09/mad-cow-usa-1997-video.html



U.S.A. HIDING MAD COW DISEASE VICTIMS AS SPORADIC CJD ? (see video at bottom)

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2009/07/usa-hiding-mad-cow-disease-victims-as.html




Wednesday, November 09, 2011

Case report Sporadic fatal insomnia in a young woman: A diagnostic challenge: Case Report TEXAS

HOW TO TURN A POTENTIAL MAD COW VICTIM IN THE USA, INTO A HAPPENSTANCE OF BAD LUCK, A SPONTANEOUS MUTATION FROM NOTHING.

OR WAS IT $$$

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2011/11/case-report-sporadic-fatal-insomnia-in.html



Mad Cow Scaremongers

Mad Cow Scaremongers by Terry S. Singeltary Sr. a review of the TSE prion agent 2003-2011

re-2003

"he also blindly insists upon a mad-cow with Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Lou Gehrig’s disease."



http://www.seac.gov.uk/pdf/hol-response091008.pdf


http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2009/10/seac-science-and-technology-committees.html


SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/09/mad-cow-scaremongers.html


layperson

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518

flounder9@verizon.net

TSS

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